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Occupational Disease and Their Impact on Workers Health

Every job inherently carries risk and hazards. These influencing factors arise from the workforce itself, the workload, and the work environment. Hazard resulting from work must be minimize as they can significantly affect worker’s health. Therefore, Companies should conduct Workplace Hazard Mapping. Environmental test revealing levels surpassing the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) that aren’t promptly addressed can lead to Occupational Disease.

Presidential Regulation No. 7 of 2019 Defines Occupational Disease (OD) as those arising from or caused by one’s occupation or work environment.  The legal basis for Occupational Disease (OD) in Indonesia includes :

  • Law No. 1 of 1970 Concerning Occupational Safety 
  • No. KEPTS 333/MEN/1889, governing the diagnosis and reporting of OD 
  • No. KEPT.79/MEN/2023, providing guidelines for the diagnosis and assessment of disabilities caused by accident and OD.

Risk Factors for OD are linked to potential workplace hazard, such as exposure to Physical, Chemical, Biological, Physiological (Ergonomics) and Psychological factors. Physical factors can lead to various disturbances, including Noise and Vibration affecting workers’ health, such as visual impairment, Spinal Issues, digestive problem, blood vessel constriction (Vibratory Hand Tools), extreme temperatures (Heat Strokes, Heat Cramps) Ionizing Radiation (Hematology, Eye Organ, Conjunctivitis), Hyperbaric Conditions (Aeroembolism, Oxygen Poisoning, Nitrogen Narcosis), Visible Light (Flash Blindness), and Psychological Factors in the workplace.

Chemical Factors from raw materials can cause respiratory system disorder like asthma, Bronchitis and Sarcoidosis. Biological Factors (Ergonomics) such as Low Back Pain, while Psychological Factors include workplace psychological issues, Depression, or Psychosomatic Diseases.

Occupational Disease encompass several types of condition caused by work and the work environment. Presidential Decision no. 22 of 1993 specifies 31 types of disease included OD.

When a company identifies potential OD in the workplace or discovers an affected worker, physical Examination and supportive test are conducted to determine the diagnosis. The stages of OD diagnosis are :

  • Identification
  • Anamnesis, such as work period, job rotation, and work division.
  • Physical Examination and Supportive Test.
  • Workplace Environmental Test
  • Work History           
  • Potential Exposure of Factors causing work hazard.
  • Diagnosis Resume of OD Types 

Preventing OD is not solely the responsibility of the company but also all employee. Preventive measures start by evaluating health risk in the workplace, controlling exposures of hazardous substance (Elimination, Substitution, Technical Solution, Rotation, and using Personal Protective Equipment), Conducting MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic personality Inventory) tests to assess Psychosocial risks in the workplace.

Companies require a competent consultant to identify and prevent OD in the workplace. Sentra Medika Surabaya, as a trusted Healthcare Service Provider since 1997, has assisted numerous companies in implementing healthy and save work environment. Contact our customer Service for further information.